Objective of the third research group is to identify precursors that lead adolescent immigrants into violence and delinquency after migrating to the two receiving contexts. However, this study will also identify protective factors that can buffer migration-related stressors. Two immigrant groups will be studied: Russian Jewish immigrants in Israel and ethnic German immigrants from the former Soviet Union in Israel. Three steps will be taken. First, socialization processes in the former Soviet Union will be studied with regard to social norms, acceptance of violence and other values that are already internalized before entering the new society. Second, the receiving societies will be studied with regard to recent changes in the integration of immigrants into the existing social system (e.g. educational system, work-related changes, cultural acceptance etc.). Third, the role of peer groups and families will be studied with regard to increased or decreased levels of norm conflicts.